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germanium transistors using

Electronics

Early transistors were produced using germanium as the semiconductor material, because methods of purifying it to the required degree had been developed during and shortly after World War II.Because the electrical properties of semiconductors are extremely sensitive to the slightest trace of certain other elements, only about one part per billion of such elements can be tolerated in material

favorite transistors in a fuzzface circuit

Jul 22, 2010I like to back off the fuzz control as well. I found that the bias on mine loves Energizer instead of the carbon batteries I've been using. Besides BC-108c, I also like Mullard GET875, CV7003, OC-84, and the Raytheon germanium transistors in the early Lovepedal BBB's.

New Technology Sparks an Expansion for Germanium Transistors

The company can build germanium transistors to almost any dimensional tolerances. This development may mean an expansion for germanium as a semiconductor material even in such applications as L-band phased array radar, television tuners and computer switching circuits. The single most significant feature of the germanium planar transistor - in

The History of the Transistor

Before transistors, digital circuits were composed of vacuum tubes. The story of ENIAC computer speaks volumes about the disadvantages of vacuum tubes in computers. A transistor is a device composed of semiconductor materials (germanium and silicon) that can both conduct and insulate Transistors switch and modulate electronic current.

What is VBE of a Transistor?

VBE is the voltage that falls between the base and emitter of a bipolar junction transistor.. VBE is approximately 0.7V for a silicon transistor. For a germanium transistor (which is more rare), VBE is approximately 0.3V.. VBE is important when doing DC analysis of a transistor circuit because it is used for calculations to find the transistor's DC values.

Why were transistors made with Germanium?

A long time ago, people could make a crude radio which needed no external source of power to operate. This was called a crystal set because one essential part was a lump of some natural occurring substance such as galena (the "Crystal") with a fin

Why Silicon is preferred over Germanium for Diode

Aug 14, 2016In this post let us see why Silicon Diode is preferred over Germanium Diode . The following table gives us the comparison of Silicon diode vs Germanium diode.. Here the fist four points are advantages of Silicon (Si) based diode over Germanium (Ge) based diode. The last point is the disadvantage of the silicon diode.

Choosing Transistor Replacements Electronics Notes

Semiconductor material used: Most transistors will either be germanium or silicon. Other types are normally only used in very specialist applications. It is important to know what type the transistor is because there is a difference in the base emitter forward bias voltage drop. For germanium it is around 0.2 - 0.3 volts and for silicon it is

Germanium Properties, History and Applications

Germanium transistors had a tendency to fail at high temperatures, a problem that could be solved with silicon. Until Teal, no one had been able to produce silicon with a high enough purity to replace germanium, but after 1954 silicon began replacing germanium in electronic transistors, and by the mid-1960s, germanium transistors were virtually

AMZ Germanium Transistor Buffer

Basic Info and Mods. NOTE: This project originated as an experiment in how to use the germanium transistors that are left over when sorted for leakage and gain. It is not hi-fi and I would not recommend it for design into a new commercial product! The AC128 is a great sounding germanium transistor but if you buy many of them, there will be a large number left over that have too much base-to

Why Are Germanium Transistors In Fuzz Pedals So Popular

Germanium Transistors. The main ingredient used in germanium transistors is Germanium, a semi-metal, which was normally used for making the items like diodes and transistors commonly used in consumer electronics. These transistors have a reputation to definitely give a vintage tone to the guitar music which in fashion until today but with the

Design Your Own Distortion

Germanium transistors have a little smoother sound. Germaniums were used in the late sixties on the original Fuzz Face, for example. Unipolar transistors, such as JFETs and MOSFETs have a softer, more tube-like tone. 2) "Hard" diode clipping. This is a very common way to create distortion. Two diodes shunt to ground the opposite way around

Germanium Datasheet Transistor

Infineon's SiGe:C (silicon- germanium carbon) B7HFe process technology is the foundation for the latest generation of ultra-low noise SiGe:C heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in standard, low-cost SOT343 (BFP740) and flatlead TSFP-4 (BFP740F) packages offered by Avnet.

Germanium Properties, History and Applications

Germanium transistors had a tendency to fail at high temperatures, a problem that could be solved with silicon. Until Teal, no one had been able to produce silicon with a high enough purity to replace germanium, but after 1954 silicon began replacing germanium in electronic transistors, and by the mid-1960s, germanium transistors

10 W Audio Amplifier with Germanium Transistors (With

Jun 24, 2015Jun 24, 2015 - 10 W Audio Amplifier with Germanium Transistors. Placa amplificadora de alta fidelidad de audio diy 100W tubo MOS IRFP240 IRFP9240 Clase AB FET placa para amplificador acabado placa 1 Uds,Consigue increbles descuentos en

Quantum computing closer with germanium

Germanium transistors return. We now show that a single transistor can function as a quantum bit by using germanium. The QuTech researchers have long considered germanium as a superb material for making quantum bits, but manufacturing with this material has been challenging.

"A History of Germanium" by Emily Darby

In the late 1950s, interest grew in using silicon instead of germanium because of its larger bandgap and the existence of stable silicon oxides. 1 However, just as the use of germanium in transistors was becoming obsolete, a new application for germanium semiconductors was developed: gamma-ray and IR detectors. 1 Interest in far IR detectors

Germanium transistors : Black Glass models

One of the latest Black Glass, using the new ACxxx code. Rare and pricey. They were used in professional audio preamps. Remarkable distinct and smooth tone. Some later models in TO1 metallic case seem to be low class markdowns OC203, OC613 and similar (code 200) Transistors of these series are not germanium, but early silicium models.

Germanium transistors : Black Glass models

One of the latest Black Glass, using the new ACxxx code. Rare and pricey. They were used in professional audio preamps. Remarkable distinct and smooth tone. Some later models in TO1 metallic case seem to be low class markdowns OC203, OC613 and similar (code 200) Transistors of these series are not germanium, but early silicium models.

Very Fast Quantum Calculations with Germanium Transistors

Jan 15, 2020The researchers at QuTech, a collaboration of TU Delft and TNO, have built two germanium transistors that can be the building blocks for fast quantum computing. Before this work it was not possible to perform quantum calculations using only transistors. Other elements were needed and this provided a limitation for upscaling.

Help with Germanium PNP transistors needed.

Mar 28, 2020But again, for fault finding you don't check transistors, you fault find the circuit - measuring the voltages on all transistors would be the place to start. The entire power amp is a kind of 'opamp', with DC feedback - with the output at +30V the feedback should be turning the bottom output transistor ON to bring it down - the voltage

Analog Man Sun Face and Fuzz Face Page

RCA germanium transistors . In 2018 we got some RCA germanium transistors in that sound great. Like the red dot NKT, these are a house number, they were made for a specific customer so they don't have a normal 2N part number on them. They are nice and bright for germanium, with normal gain, and have excellent cleanup characteristics.

Diodes and Transistors

Diodes and Transistors 1. Introduction So far in EE100 you have seen analog circuits. You started with simple resistive circuits, then dynamical systems (circuits with capacitors and inductors) and then op-amps. Then you learned how circuit elements do not operate the same at all frequencies.

Germanium ECL

The 7090 used germanium alloy-junction transistors and (faster) germanium diffused junction drift transistors. More than 50,000 in all. The 7090 used the Standard Modular System (SMS) cards using current-mode logic some using diffused junction drift transistors. so YES there was ECL with advanced Germanium !

Russian Germanium Transistors

I bought these on Ebay and they were actually shipped from Lithuania. These germanium transistors were supposed to be a replacement for the 2N404 device. I used my Peak Electronics transistor tester on a random selection of parts from the bag and got the following results: HFE

Fuzz Central

Small Bear Electronics has NPN Germanium transistors. My Clone There has been a lot of controversy about the value of using carbon composition resistors in a circuit when you're trying to clone the sound of a vintage effect pedal. But for my Fuzz Face clone, I've decided to build it as accurately as possible, which means using as many NOS parts

history

Explorer 1 used a combination of germanium and silicon transistors. Sputnik-2 and Explorer 1 were the second and third satellites to orbit Earth, respectively. The first computer in space (and first computer in orbit) was the Gemini digital computer, built by IBM, which first flew in 1965. It was IBM's first completely silicon semiconductor

Germanium Nanowire Transistors

For more than a decade, the extensive use of Germanium over Silicon has been discussing, and the first Germanium processors were predicted before 15 years, to arrive in 2007 to 2008 time. Similarly the first Graphine transistors will be arrive around 2020 to 2025.

Should Germanium be allowed to make a comeback in Transistors?

Apr 10, 2017Despite germanium's starring role in the transistor's history, it was soon replaced by silicon. But now the germanium is up for come back. World's leading edge chip makers are thinking about replacing silicon with germanium. The basic idea is to replace the silicon in transistors with a material that can move current at grater rates.

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